1.10 End-of-Chapter Material
In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick spent three days analyzing data to develop a model that was consistent with the known facts about the structure of DNA, the chemical substance that is the basis for life. They were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work. Based on this information, would you classify their proposed model for the structure of DNA as an experiment, a law, a hypothesis, or a theory? Explain your reasoning.
In each scenario, state the observation and the hypothesis.
- A recently discovered Neanderthal throat bone has been found to be similar in dimensions and appearance to that of modern humans; therefore, some scientists believe that Neanderthals could talk.
- Because DNA profiles from samples of human tissue are widely used in criminal trials, DNA sequences from plant residue on clothing can be used to place a person at the scene of a crime.
Small quantities of gold from far underground are carried to the surface by groundwater, where the gold can be taken up by certain plants and stored in their leaves. By identifying the kinds of plants that grow around existing gold deposits, one should be able to use this information to discover potential new gold deposits.
- State the observation.
- State the hypothesis.
- Devise an experiment to test the hypothesis.
Large amounts of nitrogen are used by the electronics industry to provide a gas blanket over a component during production. This ensures that undesired reactions with oxygen will not occur. Classify each statement as an extensive property or an intensive property of nitrogen.
- Nitrogen is a colorless gas.
- A volume of 22.4 L of nitrogen gas weighs 28 g at 0°C.
- Liquid nitrogen boils at 77.4 K.
- Nitrogen gas has a density of 1.25 g/L at 0°C.
Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe and makes up about two-thirds of the human body. Classify each statement as an extensive property or an intensive property of oxygen.
- Liquid oxygen boils at 90.2 K.
- Liquid oxygen is pale blue.
- A volume of 22.4 L of oxygen gas weighs 32 g at 0°C.
- Oxygen has a density of 1.43 g/L at 0°C.
One of the first high-temperature superconductors was found to contain elements in the ratio 1Y:2Ba:3Cu:6.8O. A material that contains elements in the ratio 1Y:2Ba:3Cu:6O, however, was not a high-temperature superconductor. Do these materials obey the law of multiple proportions? Is the ratio of elements in each compound consistent with Dalton’s law of indivisible atoms?
♦ There has been increased evidence that human activities are causing changes in Earth’s atmospheric chemistry. Recent research efforts have focused on atmospheric ozone (O3) concentrations. The amount of ozone in the atmosphere is influenced by concentrations of gases that contain only nitrogen and oxygen, among others. The following table gives the masses of nitrogen that combine with 1.00 g of oxygen to form three of these compounds.
Compound Mass of Nitrogen (g) A 0.875 B 0.438 C 0.350
- Determine the ratios of the masses of nitrogen that combine with 1.00 g of oxygen in these compounds. Are these data consistent with the law of multiple proportions?
- Predict the mass of nitrogen that would combine with 1.00 g of oxygen to form another possible compound in the series.
Indium has an average atomic mass of 114.818 amu. One of its two isotopes has an atomic mass of 114.903 amu with a percent abundance of 95.70. What is the mass of the other isotope?
Earth’s core is largely composed of iron, an element that is also a major component of black sands on beaches. Iron has four stable isotopes. Use the data to calculate the average atomic mass of iron.
Isotope Percent Abundance (%) Atomic Mass (amu) 54Fe 5.82 53.9396 56Fe 91.66 55.9349 57Fe 2.19 56.9354 58Fe 0.33 57.9333
♦ Because ores are deposited during different geologic periods, lead ores from different mining regions of the world can contain different ratios of isotopes. Archaeologists use these differences to determine the origin of lead artifacts. For example, the following table lists the percent abundances of three lead isotopes from one artifact recovered from Rio Tinto in Spain.
Isotope Percent Abundance (%) Atomic mass (amu) 204Pb 203.973028 206Pb 24.41 205.974449 207Pb 20.32 206.97580 208Pb 50.28 207.976636
- If the only other lead isotope in the artifact is 204Pb, what is its percent abundance?
- What is the average atomic mass of lead if the only other isotope in the artifact is 204Pb?
- An artifact from Laurion, Greece, was found to have a 207Pb:206Pb ratio of 0.8307. From the data given, can you determine whether the lead in the artifact from Rio Tinto came from the same source as the lead in the artifact from Laurion, Greece?
The macrominerals sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, chlorine, and phosphorus are widely distributed in biological substances, although their distributions are far from uniform. Classify these elements by both their periods and their groups and then state whether each is a metal, a nonmetal, or a semimetal. If a metal, is the element a transition metal?
The composition of fingernails is sensitive to exposure to certain elements, including sodium, magnesium, aluminum, chlorine, potassium, calcium, selenium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, scandium, arsenic, and antimony. Classify these elements by both their periods and their groups and then determine whether each is a metal, a nonmetal, or a semimetal. Of the metals, which are transition metals? Based on your classifications, predict other elements that could prove to be detectable in fingernails.
Mercury levels in hair have been used to identify individuals who have been exposed to toxic levels of mercury. Is mercury an essential element? a trace element?
Trace elements are usually present at levels of less than 50 mg/kg of body weight. Classify the essential trace elements by their groups and periods in the periodic table. Based on your classifications, would you predict that arsenic, cadmium, and lead are potential essential trace elements?
Please be sure you are familiar with the topics discussed in Essential Skills 1 (Section 1.9 "Essential Skills 1") before proceeding to the Application Problems. Problems marked with a ♦ involve multiple concepts.