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Chapter 22 The p-Block Elements
We continue our discussion of the chemistry of the main group elements with the p block of the periodic table. We will use the systematic approach developed in Chapter 21 "Periodic Trends and the ", which is based on valence electron configurations and periodic trends in atomic properties, while applying the unifying principles of chemical bonding, thermodynamics, and kinetics. The line that divides metals from nonmetals in the periodic table crosses the p block diagonally. As a result, the differences between metallic and nonmetallic properties are evident within each group, even though all members of each group have the same valence electron configuration. The p block is the only portion of the periodic table where we encounter the inert-pair effect. Moreover, as with the s-block elements, the chemistry of the lightest member of each group in the p block differs sharply from that of its heavier congeners but is similar to that of the element immediately below and to the right of it in the next group. Thus diagonal similarities in chemistry are seen across the p block.
An artist’s sketch of tetragonal boron, showing the linked B12icosahedra. The artist, Roger Hayward, served as Linus Pauling’s illustrator for several decades, most notably in The Architecture of Molecules, which was published by W. H. Freeman in 1964.
As you study the periodic trends in properties and the reactivity of the elements in groups 13–18, you will learn how “cobalt blue” glass, rubies, and sapphires are made and why the US military became interested in using boron hydrides as rocket fuels but then abandoned its effort. You will also discover the source of diamonds on Earth, why silicon-based life-forms are likely to exist only in science fiction, and why most compounds with N–N bonds are potentially explosive. You will also learn why phosphorus can cause a painful and lethal condition known as “phossy jaw” and why selenium is used in photocopiers.