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January 2020
January 2020
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General Chemistry: Principles, Patterns, and Applications

Version 2.0 By: Bruce Averill and Patricia Eldredge
Homework system included

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Key Features:

  • Written at a level suitable for science majors, but with a less formal writing style that appeals to today’s students.
  • Formatted to be less visually cluttered than typical general chemistry books in order to promote improved learning.
  • Stresses unifying concepts by presenting an integrated overview of the most important chemistry subdisciplines: organic, inorganic, biological, environmental, material, and nuclear.
  • Focuses on developing learners’ intuitive and predictive critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
  • Supports the development of strong operational skills.
  • Covers liquids and solids in two chapters to allow for expanded coverage of topics such as semiconductors, superconductors, polymers, and engineering materials.
  • Fundamental concepts are introduced at the start of each chapter and followed by applications at the end of each chapter, enabling flexible assignment based on the audience.
  • Topical organization is logical and discretely organized, facilitating easy syllabus preparation and course delivery.
  • Plentiful, interdisciplinary, and high-quality worked examples and exercises promote concept mastery. Application problems encourage a grasp of ideas behind the subject matter.
  • Three-dimensional molecular representations promote the development of spatial skills.
  • Supportive pedagogical structure refines and reinforces learning:
    • “Learning Objectives” lay out the key ideas to be discussed in each main section.
    • “Note the Pattern” boxes use short phrases to emphasize key concepts.
    • “Summary” boxes at the end of each main section review the section’s main ideas in prose form.
    • “Key Takeaways” at the end of each main section present the section’s key ideas in list format.
    • “Essential Skills” boxes, found throughout the text, ensure students develop the mathematical skills necessary for successful comprehension of concepts.
    • “Conceptual Problems” and “Numerical Problems” alternate at the end of each main section. “Conceptual Problems” emphasize understanding and applying the ideas covered in the preceding main section. “Numerical Problems” facilitate the development of strong operational skills. Answers are provided for odd-numbered problems, and detailed solutions and answers to all main section problems can be found in the instructor’s or solutions manuals.
    • “Application Problems” at the end of every chapter require students to synthesize and apply concepts drawn from the entire chapter in order to provide correct answers. Answers are provided for odd-numbered problems, and detailed solutions and answers to all “Application Problems” can be found in the instructor’s or solutions manuals.

This textbook is suitable for the following courses: General Chemistry and Chemistry for Engineers.

General Chemistry: Principles, Patterns, and Applications, v2.0 is suitable for general chemistry courses taken by science and engineering majors offered at two- and four-year colleges and universities.

General Chemistry: Principles, Patterns, and Applications, v2.0 adopts a seamless approach to explaining the interdisciplinary relevance of chemistry. This textbook integrates the exciting and relevant aspects of biological, environmental, and material sciences throughout, rather than relegating the substance of these topics to the final chapters. Consequently, simple organic structures, nomenclature, and reactions are introduced early on; distinctions between ionic and covalent bonding are emphasized; the relationship between structure and reactivity is stressed; and both organic and inorganic examples are employed whenever possible. The net result is a current and lively treatment of the subject that sparks curiosity and grabs students’ attention. By presenting a systematic method to problem solving, this textbook encourages learners to develop the essential skills proven necessary to succeed in a general chemistry course, while also building a strong foundation for additional coursework in chemistry, engineering, and the life sciences.

New in This Version:
  • Updated the Periodic Table of Elements throughout to show the lanthanides and actinides and accommodate elements 112-118, which are at the edge of a theoretically predicted “island of stability” starting at element 118 (oganesson).
  • Added environmental science applications to better reflect contemporary students’ priorities and interests.
  • Updated to integrate recent data and findings. Examples include discussions of how shock-sensitive XeO3 reacts with crown ether (15-crown-5) to form a stable adduct (Chapter 22), and new developments in the area of contemporary materials (Chapter 12).
  • Streamlined coverage of more advanced topics.
  • Augmented end-of-chapter problems and reviewed them for accuracy.
  • New, more reader-friendly interior design and refreshed illustration program.
  • New FlatWorld homework system.

All Instructor Supplements will be available by January 31, 2020.

Homework System for this title will be live by July 01, 2020.

This book is now available with FlatWorld’s Homework System at no additional cost to your students.

With the new, easy-to-use Homework System, you will be able to assign questions and autograde homework. The system includes multi-format questions written specifically for your FlatWorld book, which you can access through our stand-alone interface or integrate with your learning management system (e.g. Canvas, Moodle, Brightspace/D2L, and Blackboard).

Visit the FlatWorld Homework page to learn more.

To schedule a demo for help in setting up FlatWorld Homework for your course, contact your Sales Rep or FlatWorld support.

  • About the Authors
  • Acknowledgments
  • Dedication
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1: Introduction to Chemistry

  • 1.1 Chemistry in the Modern World
  • 1.2 The Scientific Method
  • 1.3 A Description of Matter
  • 1.4 A Brief History of Chemistry
  • 1.5 The Atom
  • 1.6 Isotopes and Atomic Masses
  • 1.7 Introduction to the Periodic Table
  • 1.8 Essential Elements for Life
  • 1.9 Essential Skills 1
  • 1.10 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 2: Molecules, Ions, and Chemical Formulas

  • 2.1 Chemical Compounds
  • 2.2 Chemical Formulas
  • 2.3 Naming Ionic Compounds
  • 2.4 Naming Covalent Compounds
  • 2.5 Acids and Bases
  • 2.6 Industrially Important Chemicals
  • 2.7 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 3: Chemical Reactions

  • 3.1 The Mole and Molar Masses
  • 3.2 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas
  • 3.3 Chemical Equations
  • 3.4 Mass Relationships in Chemical Equations
  • 3.5 Classifying Chemical Reactions
  • 3.6 Chemical Reactions in the Atmosphere
  • 3.7 Essential Skills 2
  • 3.8 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution

  • 4.1 Aqueous Solutions
  • 4.2 Solution Concentrations
  • 4.3 Stoichiometry of Reactions in Solution
  • 4.4 Ionic Equations
  • 4.5 Precipitation Reactions
  • 4.6 Acid–Base Reactions
  • 4.7 The Chemistry of Acid Rain
  • 4.8 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions in Solution
  • 4.9 Quantitative Analysis Using Titrations
  • 4.10 Essential Skills 3
  • 4.11 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 5: Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions

  • 5.1 Energy and Work
  • 5.2 Enthalpy
  • 5.3 Calorimetry
  • 5.4 Thermochemistry and Nutrition
  • 5.5 Energy Sources and the Environment
  • 5.6 Essential Skills 4
  • 5.7 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 6: The Structure of Atoms

  • 6.1 Waves and Electromagnetic Radiation
  • 6.2 The Quantization of Energy
  • 6.3 Atomic Spectra and Models of the Atom
  • 6.4 The Relationship between Energy and Mass
  • 6.5 Atomic Orbitals and Their Energies
  • 6.6 Building Up the Periodic Table
  • 6.7 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 7: The Periodic Table and Periodic Trends

  • 7.1 The History of the Periodic Table
  • 7.2 Sizes of Atoms and Ions
  • 7.3 Energetics of Ion Formation
  • 7.4 The Chemical Families
  • 7.5 Trace Elements in Biological Systems
  • 7.6 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 8: Ionic versus Covalent Bonding

  • 8.1 An Overview of Chemical Bonding
  • 8.2 Ionic Bonding
  • 8.3 Lattice Energies in Ionic Solids
  • 8.4 Lewis Electron Dot Symbols
  • 8.5 Lewis Structures and Covalent Bonding
  • 8.6 Exceptions to the Octet Rule
  • 8.7 Lewis Acids and Bases
  • 8.8 Properties of Covalent Bonds
  • 8.9 Polar Covalent Bonds
  • 8.10 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 9: Molecular Geometry and Covalent Bonding Models

  • 9.1 Predicting the Geometry of Molecules and Polyatomic Ions
  • 9.2 Localized Bonding and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
  • 9.3 Delocalized Bonding and Molecular Orbitals
  • 9.4 Polyatomic Systems with Multiple Bonds
  • 9.5 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 10: Gases

  • 10.1 Gaseous Elements and Compounds
  • 10.2 Gas Pressure
  • 10.3 Relationships among Pressure, Temperature, Volume, and Amount
  • 10.4 The Ideal Gas Law
  • 10.5 Mixtures of Gases
  • 10.6 Gas Volumes and Stoichiometry
  • 10.7 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
  • 10.8 The Behavior of Real Gases
  • 10.9 Essential Skills 5
  • 10.10 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 11: Liquids

  • 11.1 The Kinetic Molecular Description of Liquids
  • 11.2 Intermolecular Forces
  • 11.3 Unique Properties of Liquids
  • 11.4 Vapor Pressure
  • 11.5 Changes of State
  • 11.6 Critical Temperature and Pressure
  • 11.7 Phase Diagrams
  • 11.8 Liquid Crystals
  • 11.9 Essential Skills 6
  • 11.10 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 12: Solids

  • 12.1 Crystalline and Amorphous Solids
  • 12.2 The Arrangement of Atoms in Crystalline Solids
  • 12.3 Structures of Simple Binary Compounds
  • 12.4 Defects in Crystals
  • 12.5 Correlation between Bonding and the Properties of Solids
  • 12.6 Bonding in Metals and Semiconductors
  • 12.7 Superconductors
  • 12.8 Polymeric Solids
  • 12.9 Contemporary Materials
  • 12.10 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 13: Solutions

  • 13.1 Factors Affecting Solution Formation
  • 13.2 Solubility and Molecular Structure
  • 13.3 Units of Concentration
  • 13.4 Effects of Temperature and Pressure on Solubility
  • 13.5 Colligative Properties of Solutions
  • 13.6 Aggregate Particles in Aqueous Solution
  • 13.7 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 14: Chemical Kinetics

  • 14.1 Factors That Affect Reaction Rates
  • 14.2 Reaction Rates and Rate Laws
  • 14.3 Methods of Determining Reaction Order
  • 14.4 Using Graphs to Determine Rate Laws, Rate Constants, and Reaction Orders
  • 14.5 Half-Lives and Radioactive Decay Kinetics
  • 14.6 Reaction Rates—A Microscopic View
  • 14.7 The Collision Model of Chemical Kinetics
  • 14.8 Catalysis
  • 14.9 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 15: Chemical Equilibrium

  • 15.1 The Concept of Chemical Equilibrium
  • 15.2 The Equilibrium Constant
  • 15.3 Solving Equilibrium Problems
  • 15.4 Nonequilibrium Conditions
  • 15.5 Factors That Affect Equilibrium
  • 15.6 Controlling the Products of Reactions
  • 15.7 Essential Skills
  • 15.8 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 16: Aqueous Acid–Base Equilibriums

  • 16.1 The Autoionization of Water
  • 16.2 A Qualitative Description of Acid–Base Equilibriums
  • 16.3 Molecular Structure and Acid–Base Strength
  • 16.4 Quantitative Aspects of Acid–Base Equilibriums
  • 16.5 Acid–Base Titrations
  • 16.6 Buffers
  • 16.7 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 17: Solubility and Complexation Equilibriums

  • 17.1 Determining the Solubility of Ionic Compounds
  • 17.2 Factors That Affect Solubility
  • 17.3 The Formation of Complex Ions
  • 17.4 Solubility and pH
  • 17.5 Qualitative Analysis Using Selective Precipitation
  • 17.6 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 18: Chemical Thermodynamics

  • 18.1 Thermodynamics and Work
  • 18.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics
  • 18.3 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • 18.4 Entropy Changes and the Third Law of Thermodynamics
  • 18.5 Free Energy
  • 18.6 Spontaneity and Equilibrium
  • 18.7 Comparing Thermodynamics and Kinetics
  • 18.8 Thermodynamics and Life
  • 18.9 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 19: Electrochemistry

  • 19.1 Describing Electrochemical Cells
  • 19.2 Standard Potentials
  • 19.3 Comparing Strengths of Oxidants and Reductants
  • 19.4 Electrochemical Cells and Thermodynamics
  • 19.5 Commercial Galvanic Cells
  • 19.6 Corrosion
  • 19.7 Electrolysis
  • 19.8 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 20: Nuclear Chemistry

  • 20.1 The Components of the Nucleus
  • 20.2 Nuclear Reactions
  • 20.3 The Interaction of Nuclear Radiation with Matter
  • 20.4 Thermodynamic Stability of the Atomic Nucleus
  • 20.5 Applied Nuclear Chemistry
  • 20.6 The Origin of the Elements
  • 20.7 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 21: Periodic Trends and the s-Block Elements

  • 21.1 Overview of Periodic Trends
  • 21.2 The Chemistry of Hydrogen
  • 21.3 The Alkali Metals (Group 1)
  • 21.4 The Alkaline Earth Metals (Group 2)
  • 21.5 The s-Block Elements in Biology
  • 21.6 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 22: The p-Block Elements

  • 22.1 The Elements of Group 13
  • 22.2 The Elements of Group 14
  • 22.3 The Elements of Group 15 (The Pnicogens)
  • 22.4 The Elements of Group 16 (The Chalcogens)
  • 22.5 The Elements of Group 17 (The Halogens)
  • 22.6 The Elements of Group 18 (The Noble Gases)
  • 22.7 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 23: The d-Block Elements

  • 23.1 General Trends among the Transition Metals
  • 23.2 A Brief Survey of Transition-Metal Chemistry
  • 23.3 Metallurgy
  • 23.4 Coordination Compounds
  • 23.5 Crystal Field Theory
  • 23.6 Transition Metals in Biology
  • 23.7 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Chapter 24: Organic Compounds

  • 24.1 Functional Groups and Classes of Organic Compounds
  • 24.2 Isomers of Organic Compounds
  • 24.3 Reactivity of Organic Molecules
  • 24.4 Common Classes of Organic Reactions
  • 24.5 Common Classes of Organic Compounds
  • 24.6 The Molecules of Life
  • 24.7 End-of-Chapter Material
  • Appendix A: Standard Thermodynamic Quantities for Chemical Substances at 25°C

    Appendix B: Solubility-Product Constants (Ksp) for Compounds at 25°C

    Appendix C: Dissociation Constants and pKa Values for Acids at 25°C

    Appendix D: Dissociation Constants and pKb Values for Bases at 25°C

    Appendix E: Standard Reduction Potentials at 25°C

    Appendix F: Properties of Water

    Appendix G: Physical Constants and Conversion Factors

    Appendix H: Periodic Table of Elements

    Appendix I: Experimentally Measured Masses of Selected Isotopes

    Appendix J: Art and Photo Credits

  • J.1 Molecular Models
  • J.2 Photo Credits
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    Homework System for this title will be live by July 01, 2020.

    This book is now available with FlatWorld’s Homework System at no additional cost to your students.

    With the new, easy-to-use Homework System, you will be able to assign questions and autograde homework. The system includes multi-format questions written specifically for your FlatWorld book, which you can access through our stand-alone interface or integrate with your learning management system (e.g. Canvas, Moodle, Brightspace/D2L, and Blackboard).

    Visit the FlatWorld Homework page to learn more.

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    Instructor Manual

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    Bruce averill

    Bruce Averill Chemist, Product Science Branch, Antimicrobials Division, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

    Bruce A. Averill grew up in New England. He received his B.S. with high honors in chemistry at Michigan State University in 1969, and he received his Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry at MIT in 1973. After three years as an NIH and NSF Postdoctoral Fellow at Brandeis University and the University of Wisconsin, he began his independent academic career at Michigan State University in 1976. He was promoted in 1982, after which he moved to the University of Virginia, where he was promoted to Professor in 1988. In 1994, Dr. Averill moved to the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands to work as Professor of Biochemistry. He then returned to the United States to the University of Toledo in 2001, where he was a Distinguished University Professor.

    Dr. Averill's research interests are centered on the role of metal ions in biology. In his European position, Dr. Averill was responsible for obtaining funding for and coordinating the research activities of seven research groups from seven different European countries. In addition, he was responsible for the research theme on Biocatalysis within the E. C. Slater Institute of the University of Amsterdam, where he worked as head of a team of 21 professionals, ranging from associate professors to masters students at any given time. Dr. Averill's research has attracted a great deal of attention in the scientific community. His published work is frequently cited by other researchers, and he has been invited to give more than 100 presentations at educational and research institutions and at national and international scientific meetings.

    Among his numerous awards, Dr. Averill has been named an Honorary Woodrow Wilson Fellow, an NSF Predoctoral Fellow, an NIH and NSF Postdoctoral Fellow, and an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellow; he has also received an NSF Special Creativity Award. Dr. Averill has published more than 135 articles dealing with chemical, physical, and biological subjects in refereed journals and 15 chapters in various books. He has also published more than 80 abstracts from national and international meetings, and he co-edited a graduate text on catalysis. In addition, he has taught courses at all levels, including general chemistry, biochemistry, advanced inorganic, and physical methods. In 2004, Dr. Averill decided to explore an alternative to higher education by joining the State Department as one of the first Jefferson Science Fellows, focusing on scientific issues in the Western Hemisphere. Eventually, he returned to the State Department as a W.C. Foster Fellow in 2006, and subsequently joined the staff as the Senior Coordinator for Critical Energy Infrastructure Protection Policy. After several years, he left the State Department and briefly taught chemistry at the advanced secondary level, before finding himself working at the Environmental Protection Agency, reviewing proposals as an expert chemist.

    Patricia eldredge

    Patricia Eldredge Founder, H/T Consulting

    Patricia Eldredge was raised in the U.S. diplomatic service and has traveled and lived around the world. After receiving a B.A. in Spanish language and literature from The Ohio State University, Dr. Eldredge developed an interest in chemistry while studying general chemistry at Kent State University. She obtained a B.S. in chemistry from the University of Central Florida. Following several years working as an analytical research chemist in the industry, she obtained her Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. In 1989, Dr. Eldredge was named the Science Policy Fellow for the American Chemical Society. While in Washington, D.C., she examined the impact of changes in federal funding priorities on academic research funding. She was awarded a Postdoctoral Research Fellowship with Oak Ridge Associated Universities, working with the U.S. Department of Energy on heterogeneous catalysis and coal liquefaction. Subsequently, she joined the University of Virginia as a Research Scientist and a member of the General Faculty. In 1992, Dr. Eldredge moved to Europe for several years, where she studied advanced maritime engineering, materials, and oceanography at the University of Southampton in England. The work stemmed from her keen interest in naval engineering materials. After returning to the United States in 2002, she worked as a visiting assistant professor and a senior research scientist at the University of Toledo.

    Her research interests include the use of protein scaffolds to synthesize biologically relevant clusters. Dr. Eldredge has published more than a dozen articles in leading journals dealing with synthetic inorganic chemistry and catalysis. Several of these articles presented seminal studies describing new synthetic approaches to metal-sulfur clusters. She has also been awarded a patent for her work through the Department of Energy. Her diverse teaching experience includes courses on chemistry for the life sciences, introductory chemistry, general, organic, and analytical chemistry, materials science, and MCAT preparatory courses. She has also conducted extensive research into STEM education and the tools needed to develop skills that promote student success. Dr. Eldredge is a member of the US Coast Guard Auxiliary, which comprises one-third of the Coast Guard forces and is particularly active in the Auxiliary University Program. She is also an avid offshore sailor with advanced credentials on both sides of “the Pond.”

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